Research and Presentations

RESEARCH

The first report/research regarding online learning was written in 2001. The term, "blended learning" grew out of online learning and was first introduced in literature at the college level in 2004 and then at the K-12 level in 2014. The first K-12 online school opened in 1994 with the bulk of online programs opening in the mid 2000s. The first blended learning school is difficult to determine, but many suggest it was Rocketship Charter Schools that opened in San Jose, Ca 2007. It is important to note that the field of K-12 online learning began in 1997 and the field of blended learning began in 2007. Research in the fields of blended and online learning is emerging (you can’t study or evaluate something that does not exist)!

Ongoing research provided here is related to online and blended learning mostly in the K-12 area.  The term “research” is generally considered as studies undertaken by university level researchers such as dissertations and research completed by professors. However, with the emerging field of blended learning, various case studies and reports are included as a reference.  Reports are generally written reports or surveys by entities not related to universities and usually funded by an organization or company.  Reports can also grow out of research or be original research such as Rand reports/research.  Regardless, research and reports inform the direction of online and blended learning. In addition, news articles usually report developments, anecdotes and stories about online and blended learning. 

RESEARCH DATABASES

BLENDED LEARNING

Case Studies

ROB'S BOOKS, REPORTS AND RESEARCH

Darrow, Rob (2010). A comparative study between online charter high schools and traditional high schools in California.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation, California State University, Fresno –United States.  (Also see: http://robsdoc.wikispaces.com)

Freedman, G. Darrow, R. & Watson, J.  (2002).“The California Virtual School Report: A National Survey of Virtual Education Practice and Policy with Recommendations for the State of California.” University of California College Prep Program.

Eisenberg, Michael B. with Robert Darrow (2000). The Big6 in Secondary Schools. Ohio: Linworth Publishing.

 

ROB'S ARTICLES AND WRITINGS

Darrow, Rob (2010). “The Bottom Line: Funding Online Courses.”  The School Administrator. April.

Darrow, Rob (2009).  “School Libraries are Essential: How do we meet the Virtual Access and Collaboration Needs of the 21st Century Learner and Teacher?”  Knowledge Quest. American Association of School Librarians. May.

Darrow, Rob (2008). “Online School Librarian, Do You Qualify?” Big6 Enewsletter. Fall. http://www.big6.com.   Article link: 2008.Darrow.VSLibrarian.Big6news.pdf

Darrow, Rob (2007).  “California Dreamin’ by Rob Darrow” blog. http://robdarrow.wordpress.com

Darrow, Rob (2008).  “Online School Librarian: Do You Qualify?”  Big6 Enewsletter. Fall. http://www.big6.com.

Darrow, Rob (2004-2008).  “Virtual Wisdom.”  Big6 Enewsletter.  2004-2008. http://www.big6.com.

Darrow, Rob (2006).  “Communicating with Online Blogs: MySpace and Xanga.” CUSD Today Newspaper. Clovis, Ca.  Article links:  2006.Darrow.MySpaceArticle.pdf and 2006.Darrow.OnlineSafety.pdf

Darrow, Rob (2005).  “Fresno County Teachers Putting Standards Based Content Online.” California Council for the Social Studies Review Magazine

Darrow, Rob and McDonald, Cynthia (2004). "What is Information Literacy in the Digital Age?" California School Library Association Journal. Spring. Article Link:  2004.Darrow.infolitindigitalage.pdf

Darrow, Rob (2003). "What is Your TQ (Tech Quotient)?". California School Library Association Newsletter. Jan.  Article Link: 2003.Darrow.CSLATechQuotient.pdf

Darrow, Rob.  (2002). “Information Literacy:  The Most Important element of a Technology Toolkit”. OnCUE Magazine. 

Darrow, Rob (2002). "Do You Advocate for Yourself?" California School Library Association Newsletter. Feb.  Article Link: 2002.Darrow.CSLAAdvocate.pdf

Darrow, Rob.  (1999).  “Are you Web Literate?”  Library Talk

Darrow, Rob (1998). "Can Second Graders Benefit from Using the WWW?" CUSD Today Newspaper. Clovis, Ca. Feb.  Article Link: 1998.Darrow.SecondGrInternet.pdf

Darrow, Rob.  (1998-2002).  Column Editor, Educational Technology. California School Library Association Monthly Newsletterhttp://www.csla.net/index.php/publications/newsletters

 

BOOKS - ONLINE LEARNING

Berge, Z. & Clark, T., eds. (2005). Virtual schools: Planning for success. New York: Teachers College Press.

Bersin, J. (2004).   The Blended Learning Book: Best Practices, Proven Methodologies, and Lessons Learned.  San Francisco: Pfeiffer.

Bonk, C., Graham, C., & Cross, A. (2005).  The Handbook of Blended Learning: Global Perspectives, Local Designs. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.

Cavanaugh, C., ed. (2004). Development and management of virtual schools: Issues and trends. Hershey, PA: Idea Group.

Cavanaugh, C. & Blomeyer, B. (2007). What works in K-12 online learning. Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education.

Christensen, C. M., Horn, M. B., & Johnson, C. W. (2008). Disrupting class: how disruptive innovation will change the way the world learns. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Moore, M. G. (2007). Handbook of Distance Education.  Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Palloff, R. & Pratt, K.  (1999).  Building Learning Communities in Cyberspace: Effective Strategies for the Online Classroom.  Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass.

Palloff, R. & Pratt, K.  (2007).  Building Online Learning Communities: Effective Strategies for the Virtual Classroom.  Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass.

Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York: Free Press.

Shirky, C. (2008). Here comes everybody: The power of organizing without organizations. New York: Penguin Press.

Yates, J. (2003). Interactive distance learning in prek-12 settings. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited.

Zucker, A. & Kozma, R. (2003). The virtual high school: Teaching generation V. New York: Teachers College Press.

 

REPORTS, RESEARCH and DISSERTATIONS

Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2005).  Growing by degrees: Online education in the United States, 2005.  Newburyport, MA: The Sloan Consortium.  Retrieved December 10, 2009, from http://sloanconsortium.org/publications/survey/growing_by_degrees_2005.

Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2010).  Learning on demand: Online education in the United States, 2009. Newburyport, MA: The Sloan Consortium. Retrieved March 1, 2010, from http://www.aln.org/publications/survey/learning_on_demand_sr2010.

Allen, I. E., & Seamans, J. (2006). Making the grade: Online education in the United States, 2006. Newburyport, MA: The Sloan Consortium. Retrieved December 10, 2009, from http://sloanconsortium.org/publications/survey/making_the_grade_midwest06

Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2007). Online nation: Five years of growth in online learning. Newburyport, MA: The Sloan Consortium. Retrieved December 10, 2009, from http://sloanconsortium.org/publications/survey/online_nation

Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2008). Staying the course: Online education in the United States 2008. Newburyport, MA: The Sloan Consortium. Retrieved December 10, 2009, from http://sloanconsortium.org/publications/survey/staying_course

Allen, I. E., Seaman, J., & Garrett, R. (2007). Blending in: The extent and promise of blended education in the United States. Newburyport, MA: The Sloan Consortium. Retrieved December 10, 2009, from http://sloanconsortium.org/publications/survey/blended06  

Barbour, M. K., & Reeves, T. C. (2009). The reality of virtual schools: A review of the literature. Computers & Education, 52(2), 402-416. Retrieved July 10, 2009, fromhttp://www.michaelbarbour.com/ research/pubs/CAE1241.pdf

Barker, K. (2001). E-learning: Studying Canada’s virtual secondary schools. Kelowna, BC: Society for the Advancement of Excellence in Education. Retrieved July 10, 2009, from http://www.saee.ca/index.php?option=com_ content&task=view&id=682&Itemid=141.

Beaudoin, M. F. (2003). Distance education leadership for the new century. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, VI (II). Retrieved July 10, 2009, from http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/summer62/beaudoin62.html

Butz, C. W. (2004). Student and parent satisfaction with online education at the elementary and secondary levels. Dissertation Abstracts International, 65 (08), 2957A. (UMI No. AAT 3143377)

Cavanaugh, C. (2009). Getting students more learning time online: Distance education in support of expanded learning time in K-12 schools. Washington, D.C.: Center for American Progress. Retrieved July 10, 2009, from http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/ 2009/05/distance_learning.html.

Cavanaugh, C., Barbour, M., & Clark, T. (2009). Research and practice in K-12 online learning: A review of open access literature. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 10 (1). Retrieved July 10, 2009, from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/ article/view/607/1182.

Cavanaugh, C., Gillan, K. J., Kromrey, J., Hess, M., & Blomeyer, R. (2004). The effects of distance education on K–12 student outcomes: A meta-analysis. Naperville, IL: Learning Point Associates. Retrieved July 10, 2009, from http://www.ncrel.org/tech/distance/k12distance.pdf.

Chyung, S. Y. (2001, August). Conducting learner analysis to adjust online instruction for your faceless learners. Paper presented at the 17th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning, Madison, WI. Retrieved July 10, 2009, from http://www.uwex.edu/disted/conference/ Resource_library/proceedings/01_6.pdf.

Clark, T. (2001). Virtual schools: Trends and issues. San Francisco, CA: West Ed. Retrieved July 10, 2009, from http://www.wested.org/online_pubs/virtualschools.pdf.

Dickson, W. (2005). Toward a deeper understanding of student performance in virtual high school courses: Using qualitative analyses and data visualization to inform decision making. In R. Smith, T. Clark & R. Blomeyer (Eds.), A synthesis of new research in K-12 online learning (pp. 21-23). Naperville, IL: Learning Point Associates.

DiPietro, M., Ferdig, R. E., Black, E. W., & Preston, M. (2008). Best practices in teaching K-12 online: Lessons learned from Michigan Virtual School teachers. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 7(1), 10-35. Retrieved June 30, 2009 from http://learners.in.th/file/racha_1/7.1.2.pdf.

Downes, S. (2007). Models for sustainable open educational resources. Interdisciplinary Journal of Knowledge and Learning Objects, 3, 29-44. Retrieved June 30, 2009, from http://ijklo.org/Volume3/IJKLOv3p029-044Downes.pdf.

Final report: A comprehensive assessment of Florida Virtual School. (2007). Tallahassee, FL: Florida Tax Watch Center for Educational Performance and Accountability. http://www.inacol.org/docs/FLVS_Final_Final_Report(10-15-07).pdf

Freedman, G., Darrow, R., & Watson, J. (2002). The California virtual school report: A national survey of virtual education practice and policy with recommendations for the state of California. Santa Cruz, CA: University of California. Retrieved June 30, 2009, from  http://www.edpath.com/images/VHSReport.pdf

Greenway, R., & Vanourek, G. (2006). The virtual revolution: understanding online schools. Education Next, 35-44.  http://media.hoover.org/documents/ednext20062_34.pdf.

Hernandez, R. (2008). Development and validation of an instrument to predict online student success using faculty perceptions. Dissertation Abstracts International, 70 (04). (UMI No. AAT 3353583)

Kerrey, B., & Isakson, J. (2000). The power of the Internet for learning: Moving from promise to practice. Washington, DC: United States Congress. Retrieved July 10, 2009, from http://www2.ed.gov/offices/AC/WBEC/FinalReport/index.html.

Kulik, J. (1994). Meta-analytic studies of findings on computer-based instruction. In E. L. Baker & H. F. O'Neil (Eds.), Technology assessment in education and training, (pp. 9-34). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Lamkins, J. E. (2004). Logging off: A study of online attrition in community college-level coursework. Dissertation Abstracts International, 66 (04), 3085A. (UMI No. AAT 3171841)

Lowes, S., Peiyi, L., & Yan, W. (2007). Studying the effectiveness of the discussion forum in online professional development courses. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 6(3), 181-210.

Means, B., Toyama, Y., Murphy, R., Bakia, M., & Jones, K. (2009). Evaluation of evidence-based practices in online learning: A meta-analysis and review of online learning studies. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved April 10, 2009, from http://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/ tech/evidence-based- practices/finalreport.pdf.

Moore, K., Bartkovich, J., Fetzner, M., & Ison, S. (2002, June). Success in cyberspace: Student retention in online courses. Paper presented at the Annual Forum for the Association for Institutional Research, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Morabito, M. G. (1999). Online distance education: Historical perspective and practical application. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, American Coastline University –United States. Retrieved December 20, 2009, from http://books.google.com.

Morgan, B. (2000). Is distance learning worth it?  Helping to determine the costs of online courses. Huntington, W.V.: Marshall University. Retrieved March 10, 2009, from ERIC Document Service (ED 446611), http://www.eric.ed.gov/.

Nasseh, B. (1997). A brief history of distance education. Muncie, IN: Ball State University. Retrieved January 10, 2010, from http://www.bsu.edu/classes/nasseh/study/research.html.

Online learning policy and practice survey: A survey of the states (2008). Folsom, CA: Center for Digital Education. Retrieved March 10, 2009, from http://www.convergemag.com/awards/online-learning/.

Paige, R., Hickock, E., & Patrick, S. (2004). Toward a new golden age in American education: How the Internet, the law and today's students are revolutionizing expectations. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology. Retrieved February 20, 2009, from http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/os/ technology/plan/2004/index.html.

Parsad, B., & Lewis, L. (2008). Distance education at degree-granting postsecondary institutions: 2006–07. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved March 10, 2009, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2009044.

Picciano, A., & Seaman, J. (2008). K–12 online learning: A 2008 follow-up of the the survey of U.S. school district administrators. Newburyport, MA: The Sloan Consortium. Retrieved December 10, 2009, from http://sloanconsortium.org/publications/survey/k-12online2008

Riley, R. W., Holleman, F. S., & Roberts, L. G. (2000). E-Learning: Putting a world class education at the fingertips of all children. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology. Retrieved February 10, 2010, from http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/ list/os/technology/reports/e-learning.html.

Roblyer, M. D., Davis, L., Mills, S. C., Marshall, J., & Pape, L. (2008). Toward practical procedures for predicting and promoting success in virtual school students. American Journal of Distance Education, 22(2), 90-109.

Porta-Merida, S. (2009). Online learning success: Underlying constructs affecting student attrition. Dissertation Abstracts International, 70 (04). (UMI No. AAT 3354030)

Russell, T. L. (1999). The No Significant Difference Phenomenon: A Comparative Research Annotated Bibliography on Technology for Distance Education. Littleton, CO: International Distance Education Certification Center.  http://www.nosignificantdifference.org/.

Sack, J. L. (2003). The virtual high school: An historical analysis of one e-learning model. Dissertation Abstracts International, 65 (06), 2048A. (UMI No. AAT 3136108)

Setzer, J. C., & Lewis, L. (2005). Distance education courses for public elementary and secondary school students: 2002–03. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved March 20, 2009, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2005010.

Shachar, M., & Neumann, Y. (2003). Differences between traditional and distance education academic performances: A meta-analytic approach. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 4(2), 1-20. Retrieved March 20, 2009, from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/viewArticle/153/234.

Shirky, C. (1999). 1999: The year the world wide web went world wide.   Retrieved July 20, 2009, from http://www.shirky.com/writings/international.html.

Smith, R., Clark, T., & Blomeyer, R. (2004). A synthesis of research: K-12 online learning. Naperville, IL: Learning Point Associates. Retrieved March 20, 2009, from http://www.ncrel.org/tech/synthesis/index.html.

Spellings, M. (2007). Connecting students to advanced courses online. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved March 10, 2009, from http://www2.ed.gov/admins/lead/academic/advanced/index.html

Spellings, M. (2008). Evaluating online learning: Challenges and strategies for success. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved March 10, 2009, from http://www2.ed.gov/admins/lead/academic/evalonline/index.html.

Storrings, D. A. (2005). Attrition in distance education: A meta-analysis. Dissertation Abstracts International, 66 (10) 3617A. (UMI No. AAT 3194024)

United States Department of Education (2007). Connecting students to advanced courses online: innovations in education. West Ed. Retrieved March 15, 2008 from http://www2.ed.gov/admins/lead/academic/advanced/index.html?exp=0

Waits, T., & Lewis, L. (2003). Distance education at degree-granting postsecondary institutions: 2000–2001. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved March 20, 2009, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2003017.

Watson, J. (2008). Blended learning: The convergence of online and face-to-face education. Vienna, VA: North American Council for Online Learning. Retrieved March 20, 2009, from http://www.inacol.org/resources/publications/promising-practices/ 

Watson, J., Gemin, B., Ryan, J., & Wicks, M. (2009). Keeping pace with K-12 online learning. Denver, CO: Evergreen Education Group. Retrieved December 10, 2009, from http://www.kpk12.com/download.html.

Watson, J., & Ryan, J. (2007).  Keeping pace with K-12 online learning: A review of state-level policy and practice.  Denver, CO: Evergreen Consulting Associates. Retrieved December 10, 2009, from http://kpk12.com/

Watson, J., Winograd, K., & Kalman, S. (2004). Keeping pace with K-12 online learning: A snapshot of state-level policy and practice. Naperville, IL: Learning Point Associates. Retrieved December 10, 2009, from http://kpk12.com/

 

Online Learning Research/Reports – Costs

Adsit, J. (2004). Estimated cost of operating a cyberschool in Colorado. Denver, CO: Colorado Cyberschool Association. Retrieved March 22, 2010,
http://www.dkfoundation.org/pdf/CyberschoolCostReportFeb2004CCA.pdf

Adsit, J. (2003). Funding online education: a report to the Colorado online education programs study committee.  Retrieved March 22, 2010, from http://www.dkfoundation.org/pdf/FundingOnlineEd-JAdsit.pdf    

Anderson, A. B., Augenblick, J., DeCesare, D., & Conrad, J. (2006). 20/20 vision for education: Costs and funding of virtual schools. Atlanta, GA: Bellsouth Foundation. Retrieved July 10, 2009, from www.inacol.org/research/docs/Costs&Funding.pdf.

Annetta, L. (2004).  Investigating the relationship between cost, reach, and richness in distance education. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, VII (IV). Retrieved July 10, 2009, from http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/search_results_id.php?id=278.

Bearden, D. (2008). Cyberschool finance: A study of equity and adequacy. Dissertation Abstracts International, 69 (03). (UMI No. AAT 3297926)

Cavaluzzo, L. and Higgins, M. (2001). Who Should Fund Virtual Schools? The CNA Corporation. Retrieved March 22, 2008 fromhttp://www.cna.org/news/releases/2005-06-29.

Cost guidelines for state virtual schools development, implementation and sustainability. (2006). Atlanta, GA: Southern Regional Education Board. Retrieved July 10, 2009, from http://publications.sreb.org/2006/ 06T03_Virtual_School_Costs.pdf.

Kalmon, S., & Watson, J. (2004). Report to the joint budget committee on the Colorado state legislature on the cost of online education. Denver, CO: Colorado Department of Education. Retrieved April 13, 2008, from http://www.evergreenassoc.com/pdfs/Colorado_State_Legislature_Cost_of_Online_.  

Southern Regional Education Board (2006). Cost guidelines for state virtual schools development, implementation and sustainability. Retrieved April 13, 2008 from http://publications.sreb.org/2006/06T03_Virtual_School_Costs.pdf

Tankersley, W. J. and Burnham, J. F. (2007). Distance education in Georgia’s public school districts: baseline data on utilization of the perceived barriers to implementation and expansion. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, Volume X, Number IV, Winter 2007. University of West Georgia, Distance Education Center. Retrieved March 20, 2008 from http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/winter104/tankersley104.html.

Taylor, Thomas H., Parker, G.D. and Tebeaux, Elizabeth (2001). Confronting cost and pricing issues in distance education. Educause Quarterly (3), 16-23. Retrieved March 10, 2008 from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/eqm0131.pdf.